2014: Year in Review

It is time again to look back at a year gone by and look forward to another year to come. Usually when we get to this point on the calendar, regardless of how my year has gone, I am anxious to put another year behind me and jump headlong into a new one, reinvigorated by that fresh start feeling that a new year seems to bring.

I manage this blog like a manage most things in my life, by the seat of my pants, not always sure where I am going with it but confident I will figure it out along the way. I have really enjoyed doing the blog this year, and I have felt a sense of direction for it emerging (at least in my mind; not sure if it comes across in the posts), and so in the spirit of that trajectory, I am thrilled to be entering my third year. I have a head full of ideas and I am gaining steam, so if things go the way I envision, this will be an abundant year of diverse posts that will hopefully prove to be enlightening, entertaining, and engrossing.

Serial Posts, etc.

In 2014 I started a few series of posts, and I plan to start more in 2015. The first one I started was an Ethnobotany series, which so far includes Holy Basil, Marigolds, and Cinchona. I also began a series on Drought Tolerant Plants, which so far consists of An Introduction, Fernbush, and Blue Sage. Flower Anatomy and Fruits were part of another new series exploring Botanical Terms. Some ideas for other series include: Poisonous Plants, Famous Botanists in History, and Botany in Popular Culture. None of these series has a regular posting schedule and each will continue indefinitely. I also plan to write more book reviews, as I only managed one in 2014 (Seedswap by Josie Jeffery). And speaking of reviews, probably my most ambitious endeavor of 2014 was reviewing the 17 articles in the October 2014 Special Issue of American Journal of Botany. You can read a recap here.

Social Media

It’s no mystery that having a social media presence in this day and age is imperative to the success of virtually any venture, especially a blog since the internet is veritably flooded with them. I’ve decided that Twitter is my favorite form of social media for now, and so I have been spending most of my time there. You can find and follow me @awkwardbotany. I also started a sister microblog on Tumblr in 2014. I mostly post plant and garden photos, and occasionally I share links to plant related things that I find interesting. Find and follow me here.

If you like what you read here and want to support Awkward Botany, the most helpful thing you can do is share it with your friends, family, and acquaintances. The easiest way to do that is by linking to individual posts on your preferred social media sites (there are buttons at the end of each post that help you do that). Or you can just tell people about it in person by using your mouth to make words, the old fashioned way. If you do share Awkward Botany online, consider including #phytocurious. You can also use this hashtag for anything plant related, including (especially) pictures of plants, that way I can easily find the cool plant things you are posting and share in your plant nerd glee.

Guest Posts

I hinted last year that I was considering publishing guest posts, and I have decided that I really want to do that. I’m going to be kind of picky about what I post, but don’t let that stop you from submitting something. You can write about your favorite plant, interesting plant science research, plants in the news, book or other media reviews, or anything else plant related. If this interests you, let me know by using the contact form or by sending me a message on Twitter. We can discuss further details from there.

Year of Pollination

Because I have developed such a fascination with pollinators and pollination (and because it is such an important topic), I have decided to dub 2015 the Year of Pollination. So far what this means is that I will be posting about pollinators and pollination at least once if not twice a month during each month of the year. This idea is young, so it could mean other things, too. Time will tell, so stay tuned.

SAMSUNG

I have lots of other thoughts and ideas swirling around in my brain, but I will keep them to myself for now until they are more fully formed. What I have included here will suffice. Thank you so much for reading and sharing. I wish you and yours all the best in 2015.

Advertisements

Documentary: Know Your Mushrooms

Earlier this month, the 33rd annual Telluride Mushroom Festival took place in Telluride, Colorado. This is an event that draws in hundreds (thousands, perhaps?) of fungi enthusiasts. As a budding fungi enthusiast myself, I get excited when I hear tale of gatherings such as these, and while I did not make it out this year, the Telluride Mushroom Festival is high on my list of things to attend sometime in the years to come.

My fascination with fungi started shortly before I headed to graduate school in Illinois in 2009. I had just read about mycoremediation in a book called Toolbox for Sustainable City Living, and that, along with what I had learned about soil fungi in my college soils courses, had me very curious about the world of mycology. I have yet to spend the kind of time that I would like to on this subject, but it remains of great interest to me.

A couple years ago I was writing weekly recommendations on my previous blog, the juniper bends as if it were listening. One of my weekly recommendation posts was about a documentary film called, Know Your Mushrooms. I am reposting that review  here in honor of this month’s mushroom festival in Telluride, and because I think it’s a film worth watching. No, it is not about plants per se, but it is about a kingdom of living things that regularly interacts with plants. Not only that, but it’s about a major player in the ecology of practically every ecosystem on earth. Bottom line: if you are at all interested in the natural world, you will be interested in this film.

know your mushrooms

Mushrooms freaks, fungiphiles, and myco-fanatics alike are all probably well aware of this fantastic documentary film by Ron Mann entitled, Know Your Mushrooms, but for uninitiated folks and novices like myself, this is a great introduction. This film will acquaint you with a peculiar crowd of mushroom lovers and fungus aficionados, where you will marvel in their uniqueness and their vast knowledge concerning the fascinating world of mycology. Mann bases his film around his visit to the Telluride Mushroom Festival in Colorado, where mushroom fans have gathered annually for many years now to celebrate and revel in the fungal world. Mann converses with several mushroom experts and enthusiasts, but spends most of his time with self-proclaimed guru, Larry Evans. Alongside Evans, Mann explores numerous mycological topics, including mushroom hunting, mushroom cooking, poisonous mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, mushroom folklore, mushroom health benefits, and the ecological and environmental benefits of fungi (mycoremediation!). This is a very well-produced and well-directed film, maintaining the interest and attention of the viewer as it transitions from one aspect of mushroom culture to another, simultaneously providing education and entertainment throughout. If your viewing experience is anything like mine, by the time this film is over, you will be wishing that you were as knowledgeable about mushrooms as the folks featured in this film. As a result of watching Mann’s documentary, I have vowed to redouble my efforts and commit myself to the study of mycology so that one day I can join fellow fungus freaks in a celebration of this magnitude. Perhaps you will join us…

Morels harvested on the forest floors of Illinois

Morels harvested on the forest floor of Illinois

14 Botanical Terms for Flower Anatomy

I like to know the names of things. Certainly I don’t have to know what everything is called in order to appreciate it for what it is, but that appreciation deepens when I understand it better. Scientific exploration helps us discover the workings of the world around us, and through that exploration comes the naming and describing of things. The names are largely arbitrary apart from the fact that they help us keep track of the descriptions associated with the discoveries. Calling things by name and knowing how to describe them not only increases our awareness of the natural world but can also give us greater appreciation for the larger picture and our place in it all. With that I introduce a new series of posts concerning botanical terms.

It’s mid-summer now (at least in the northern hemisphere) and flowers abound, so this first Botanical Terms post will help us become better familiar with flower anatomy. [I’m also releasing this post while the Botanical Society of America convenes for its annual conference in my current hometown – Boise, Idaho – so it seems fitting]. Of course, as soon as I began looking into the subject of flower anatomy, I realized very quickly that, like so many other things, it is incredibly complex. First of all, in the larger world of plants, not all produce flowers. Non-vascular plants don’t. And within the category of vascular plants, non-seed producing plants don’t make flowers either. Within the category of seed producing plants, there are two groups: gymnosperms and angiosperms. Angiosperms produce flowers; gymnosperms don’t. Even though that narrows it down quite a bit, we are still dealing with a very large group of plants.

The complexity doesn’t stop there, of course. Memorizing the names of flower structures and recognizing them on each flowering plant would be easy if every flowering plant had all of the same structures and if all structures existed on each flower. However, this is not the case. Depending on the flower you are looking at, some structures may be absent and some may have additional structures that are not common ones. Also, some plants have inflorescences that appear as a single flower but are actually a collection of many smaller flowers (or florets), like plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae) for example. Regardless, we are going to start with basic terms, as there are a large number of flowering plants that do exhibit  all or most of the following basic structures in their flowers.

flower anatomy

Pedicel and Peduncle: These terms refer to the stem or stalk of the flower. Each individual flower has a pedicel. When flowers appear in groups (also known as an inflorescence), the stalk leading up to the group of flowers is called a peduncle.

Sepal and Calyx: Sepals are the first of the four floral appendages. They are modified leaves at the base of the flower that protect the flower bud. They are typically green but can be other colors as well. In some cases they may be very small or absent altogether. The sepals are known collectively as the calyx.

Petal and Corolla: Petals are colorful leaf-like appendages and the most familiar part of a flower. They come in myriad sizes, shapes, and colors and are often multi-colored. Their purpose is to attract pollinators. Many plants are pollinated by specific pollinators, and so their petals are designed to attract those pollinators. The petals are known collectively as the corolla.  

Stamen, Anther, and Filament: Pollen is produced in a structure called an anther which sits atop a filament. Collectively this is known as a stamen. Stamens are considered the male portion of the flower because they produce the pollen grains that fertilize the egg to form a seed. Flowers often have several stamens, and on flowers that have both male and female structures, the stamens are found surrounding the female portion.

Pistil, Carpel, Stigma, Style, and Ovary: The female portion of a flower consists of a stigma (where pollen grains are collected), a style (which raises the stigma up to catch the pollen), and an ovary (where pollen is introduced to the ovules for fertilization). Together this is known as a carpel. A collection of carpels fused together is called a pistil. Just like with stamens, flowers can have multiple pistils.

Start learning to identify floral structures on flowers like rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa). (photo credit: eol.org)

Start learning floral anatomy on flowers with easily recognizable structures like the flowers of rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa). (photo credit: eol.org)

Flowers are small art pieces worthy of admiration in their own right. However, recognizing and exploring the different floral structures can be just as enthralling. The structures vary considerably from species to species, each its own piece of nature’s artwork. So, I encourage you to find a hand lens (or better yet a dissecting microscope) and explore the intimate parts of the flowers around you.

Drought Tolerant Plants: Fernbush

The first of many plants to be profiled in this series on drought tolerant plants is Chamaebatiaria millefolium, known commonly as fernbush or desert sweet. Fernbush is a shrub that is found in most western U.S. states, generally in locations that are dry and rocky with sandy or gravelly soils.  However, it also occurs in sights with loam or clay loam soils, making it a plant that is not too finicky about soil types. It is found at a wide range of elevations (from 3,000 feet up to 11,000 feet) and in a wide variety of plant communities, including lodgepole pine subalpine forests, juniper-pinyon pine woodlands, mountain mahogany-oak scrublands, and sagebrush steppes. It is occasionally browsed by certain animals, but not enough to be considered an important food source. Instead, its major wildlife value is providing cover for birds, small mammals, and antelope.

Fernbush is by far one of my favorite shrubs. Its the leaves that make it so interesting. As the common name suggests, the leaves look just like little fern fronds, and considering that ferns tend to be associated with shady, moist environments, it seems strange to see a fern-like bush growing in full sun in a dry, rocky site. Alas, fernbush is not a fern, but instead a shrub with very cool leaves.

IMG_0838

IMG_0837

Fernbush grows to about as wide as it does high (between 1-3 meters), and depending on where it is growing it is evergreen or semi-evergreen, dropping the older leaves from the lower portions of its branches during the winter. Its bark is smooth and russet or cinnamon-colored. Flowers appear in clusters at the tips of branches in mid to late summer and are small, white or cream colored, and rose-like with five petals.

SAMSUNG

The fruit of fernbush is called a follicle and contains very small seeds, mere millimeters in size. The spent flower stalks are attractive in their own right and provide great winter interest. They can be pruned off in the spring in preparation for new flower stalks and to keep the plants looking good.

IMG_0834

Fernbush is very drought tolerant. Once its established, it needs very little (if any) supplemental water. It is likely that the leaves of fernbush give it this trait. They are small and finely divided, as well as being hairy and resinous. Physical adaptations such as these reduce water loss through transpiration, which helps the plant use available water more efficiently. Though not very commercially available, fernbush, with its unique appearance and late summer blooms, is a great addition to waterwise gardens and landscapes.

Fun Fact: Chamaebatiaria is a monotypic genus, meaning that it is a genus consisting of only one species. In this regard, Chamaebatiaria millefolium is a true rarity.

Various and Sundry Particulars from Awkward Botany Headquarters

Things are afoot at Awkward Botany Headquarters. Lots of new blog entries are in the works, and if all goes well, I will continue to post something every 7-10 days (or so).  Of course, I would like to post more regularly than that, but you know how it goes – there are only so many hours in a day/too much to do and too little time/etc.

Apart from blog posts that I want to write, I have many more ideas concerning Awkward Botany stirring around inside my addled brain. I hesitate to say too much about them now, but as the weeks and months proceed, I hope to share some of those ideas with you. One idea I will hint at for now is having guest blog posts – inviting other plant enthusiasts aboard to write a post or two for the blog. Something to think about…

The big news for right now though is that Awkward Botany has recently joined the tumblr universe. I am tumble logging, tumblogging, microblogging (or whatever you want to call it) in an Awkward Botany sort of way. Why have a microblog associated with a macroblog, you ask? Because I have lots to share, and some of those things don’t seem to fit well in a proper Awkward Botany post – things like pictures (of my garden and elsewhere), links to articles, recommendations, observations, etc. – things that are just easier to include in a micro-post rather than a macro-post. Plus I, like most bloggers, would like to see more people visiting my blog, so perhaps this will be a way to draw in a few more readers. And perhaps not. Either way, everyone should check it out: awkwardbotany.tumblr.com  If you are on Tumblr, follow my microblog. If you are on Twitter, follow me there as well: @awkwardbotany If you are not a tumblr-er or a tweeter and don’t intend to be, that’s cool; however, if you like this macroblog (and if you visit the microblog and decide you like that, too), please consider sharing Awkward Botany with your friends, family members, and associates. They might also enjoy it, and I would be forever grateful. A win-win!

Now here is a picture of a mushroom:

SAMSUNG

And here is an article about the importance of plant conservation: Why Plant Conservation Matters and How Gardeners Can Help

Thank you for reading!

Ground Nesting Bees in the Garden

Earlier this year I wrote about planting for pollinators. In that post I briefly introduced various things that people can do to encourage pollinator activity in their yards and gardens. One thing that I mentioned was the importance of providing nesting sites. Most pollinators are insects and insects are small, so the distance that they are able to travel in search of food is relatively limited. According to the Xerces Society, the smallest bees can only fly a few hundred feet from their nests. Providing nesting sites in close proximity to foraging sites is incredibly important.

Roughly 70% of native bee species in North America are ground nesting bees, so chances are pretty good that if you are providing forage for bees in your yard, a good number of the bees that visit will be ground nesting bees. In order to ensure the survival of these bees, consider providing nesting habitat for them on your property.

ground nesting bee_lasioglossum

Lasioglossum leucozonium – a North American ground nesting bee (also known as a sweat bee) – photo credit: www.eol.org

Here are a few things to keep in mind when developing nesting habitat for ground nesting bees:

Create and Maintain Undisturbed Bare Ground: You may already have ground nesting bees living in your yard and you don’t even know it. Obvious evidence of nests is difficult to spot. If you can find tunnel entrances, they will look like small ant mounds. If you find a series of small “ant mounds”, watch for bee activity during sunny times of the day. Activity can be quite ephemeral though, so it is difficult to know if bees have just moved in or if they have moved on. Avoid tilling up soil and walking through areas where you suspect or intend for bee activity. Leave patches of bare ground unplanted and unmulched in order to encourage bees to nest there.

Sunny and South Facing: Bees are most active when the sun is shining and temperatures are warm. For this reason they tend to build their nests in warm, sunny spots. However, warm, sunny spots are also the best locations for many plants. Consider sharing these sites with ground nesting bees. Avoid putting down mulch in these areas and keep vegetation sparse and minimal.

Avoid Pesticides: When encouraging pollinator activity in your yard and garden, it is best to avoid using pesticides as much as possible. Herbicides kill potential food sources. Insecticides can kill pollinating insects along with pest insects. And soil fumigants can harm ground nesting bees.

Provide Some Accommodations: Due to the diversity of ground nesting bees, it is difficult to provide nesting habitat for all potential species. Some prefer loose, sandy soil while others prefer smooth, packed ground. Some bees will nest on level ground, while others prefer sloped ground. The habitat you are able to provide will depend on the conditions present on your property. Some modifications can be made, but this all depends on the resources available to you and how particular you want to get. Apart from maintaining a patch of undisturbed, unmulched, south facing ground, there are three additional things that you can offer ground nesting bees to make them feel more at home on your property: food (in the form of diverse flowers blooming throughout the growing season), a water source (in the form of a birdbath or something similar), and a few rocks for the bees to perch on and warm their tiny bodies.

IMG_0777

The tunnel entrance of a ground nesting bee.

IMG_0779

Tunnel entrances are often found in groups in areas of bare ground mixed with patchy vegetation.

2013: Year in Review

The start of a new year is traditionally a time to be reflective and resolute. Awkward Botany is now a year old, so it is in the spirit of a new year that I look back at a year of blogging and look forward to the years to come. I did not initially set any concrete goals for this blog nor do I plan to. I am passionate about plants, and I enjoy writing – hence the blog. Any attention this blog receives is not only welcome, but celebrated. It is one of life’s great joys to be able to share your passions with others.

In 2013 – surprisingly enough – I managed to publish 42 posts. These posts covered a wide range of topics, including plant profiles (mountain kittentails, Lewis’ mock orange, sundews), wildflower walks (Spring, June, September), the latest in plant science research (cushion plants, northern pitcher plants, plant communities of the Catalinas), a book and movie review (What a Plant Knows & What Plants Talk About), gardening tips (starting seeds indoors, assessing your soil, pruning rosemary), and so much more. The years to come will bring more of the same, plus whatever else comes to mind or is requested (leave a comment below).  More importantly, my plan is for past and future posts to be organized into pages according to major categories – such as botany, horticulture, and ecology – which will make it easier to find posts on the topics you are most interested in. Also, a new year brings a new tagline – “for the phyto-curious” – because it is a deep, abiding curiosity about plant life that really drives this blog.

021

If you feel so inclined, please leave comments below and let me know what you like/dislike about the blog and/or tell me if you have any ideas for future posts. You can also leave comments and ask questions by visiting my Contact Page. Also, check out my twitter feed. Please be in touch, and let’s make 2014 our year!

For the plants, etc…