Dischidia and Its Self-contained Watering System

This is a guest post by Jeremiah Sandler.

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I was doing some sunday reading in a plant biology textbook, a section about leaves. It was highlighting leaf-specific adaptations and other cool leaf specializations. I came across a paragraph about a “flower-pot” leaf, and my mind was so blown after reading it I had to literally stand up.

It reads:

Some leaves of the Dischidia [genus], an epiphyte from Australasia, develop into urnlike pouches that become the home of ant colonies. The ants carry in soil and add nitrogeneous wastes, while moisture collects in the leaves through condensation of the water vapor coming from the mesophyll through stomata. This creates a good growing medium for roots, which develop adventitiously from the same node as the leaf and grow down into the soil contained in the urnlike pouch. In other words, this extraordinary plant not only reproduces itself by conventional means but also, with the aid of ants, provides its own fertilized growing medium and flower pots and then produces special roots, which “exploit” the situation.

Naturally I had to look up images of this plant because that’s amazing.

Illustration of Dischidia major (image credit: wikimedia commons)

Dischidia major – cross section of “flower-pot” leaf (photo credit: eol.org)

Dischidia vidalii– cross section of “flower-pot” leaf (photo credit: eol.org)

In shorter words, the plant grows modified leaves that form a little cavity, within which ants live. The ants incidentally carry soil into the cavity, while fertilizing that soil with their waste. The stomata are located on the insides of these cavities, which expel water from the leaves, where it then waters the soil that is located inside the leaves. Not to mention, the outside of those cavities are photosynthesizing all the while.

So, with the help of ants, an epiphytic Dischidia has evolved leaves to bring the soil to itself up in the trees, where it fertilizes and waters itself? SAY WHAT?! That is so damn cool.


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Botany in Popular Culture: Laura Veirs

I love music for its ability to conjure up emotions, create a mood, and inspire action. The music of Laura Veirs has always inspired me to get out into nature and be more observant of the wild things around me. Her music is rich with emotions, and I feel those, too. However, when I think of her music, I can’t escape images of the natural world and the creatures that inhabit it.

Found within her nature-centric lyrics are, of course, numerous botanical references. After all, plants and their actions make excellent subject matter for all types of art. And with that in mind, Veirs asks rhetorically in the song Rapture, “Doesn’t the tree write great poetry?”

When it comes to botanical references, the song that jumps first to mind is Lonely Angel Dust, starting off right away with these lyrics: “The rose is not afraid to blossom / though it knows its petals must fall / and with its petals fall seeds into soil / Why toil to contain it all? / Why toil at all?” Plants produce seeds in abundance, as mentioned in Shadow Blues: “Thousand seeds from a flower blowing through the night.” And, as in Where Are You Driving?, they’re seeking a suitable spot to plant themselves: “Through clouds of dandelions / seeds sailing out on the wind / hoping you’ll be the one to plant yourself on in.”

 

Flowers come up often in the songs of Laura Veirs. In White Cherry, “cherry trees take to bloom.” In Nightingale, “her heart a field in bloom.” In Make Something Good, “an organ pipe in a cathedral / that stays in tune through a thousand blooms.” In Sun is King, “innocent as a summer flower.” In Cast a Hook, “with watery cheeks down flowered lanes.” In Life Is Good Blues, “Messages you sent to Mars came from a crown of flowers.” Grass and weeds get a few mentions, too. In Summer Is the Champion, “let’s get dizzy in the grass.” In Life Is Good Blues, “tender green like the shoots of spring / unfurling on the lawn.”

Trees are the real stars, though. Veirs makes frequent references to trees and their various parts. This makes sense, as trees are real forces of nature. So much happens in, on, and around them, and images of the natural world can feel barren without them. First there is their enormousness, as in Black Butterfly, “evergreen boughs above me tower / were singing quiet stories about forgiveness, ” and Don’t Lose Yourself, “we slept in the shadow of a cedar tree.” Then there is their old age, as in Where Are You Driving?, “tangled up in the gnarled tree,” and When You Give Your Heart, “falling through the old oak tree.” There is also their utility, mentioned in Make Something Good, “I wanted to make something sweet / the blood inside a maple tree / the sunlight trapped inside the wood / make something good.” And then, of course, there is the fruit they bear, as in July Flame, “sweet summer peach / high up in the branch / just out of my reach,” and then in Wandering Kind, “a strange July / a storm came down / from the North and pulled out the salt / and it tore out the leaves from the pear tree / my canopy.”

Many of Veirs songs create scenes and tell stories of being in the wilderness among rivers, lakes, mountains, and caves. Chimney Sweeping Man, for example, is a “forest resident” who “walks[s] quiet through the forest like a tiny, quiet forest mouse.” In Snow Camping, Veirs tells a story about sleeping in a snow cave in the forest, where “a thousand snowflakes hovered,” “a distant songbird [was] singing,” and “the weighted trees” were her “only home.” But sometimes those forests burn, which is captured in Drink Deep: “Now the raging of the forest fires end / and all the mammals fled / I smell in the charred darkness / a little green / a little red.” Later in the song: “the fire closed his eyes / tipped his flame hat and slipped through the dire rye / we wandered romantic / we scattered dark branches / with singing green stars as our guide.”

Nature can also be empowering, and Veirs often refers to things in the natural world as metaphors or similes for the human experience. In Cast a Hook, Veirs adamantly asserts, “I’m not dead, not numb, not withering / like a fallen leaf who keeps her green.” This line comes up again in Saltbreakers: “You cannot burn me up / I’m a fallen leaf who keeps her green.” In Lake Swimming, Veirs addresses change and how some of life’s changes may wound us but we can still shine – “shucking free our deadened selves / like snakes and corn do / … / Old butterfly / I’ll dance with you / though our wings may crumble / we can float like ash / broken but the edges still shine.”

 

The botanical references Veirs makes in her songs are not the only things that excite me. Birds, insects, mammals, fish, and worms all find a place in Veirs’ lyrics. This is why, after more than a decade of listening to her songs, I find myself coming back to them again and again. There is a sort of kinship we feel for each other when we share in common a love of the natural world. I find that in the music of Laura Veirs.

More Botany in Popular Culture Posts:

When Urban Pollinator Gardens Meet Native Plant Communities

Public concern about the state of bees and other pollinating insects has led to increased interest in pollinator gardens. Planting a pollinator garden is often promoted as an excellent way for the average person to help protect pollinators. And it is! However, as with anything in life, there can be downsides.

In many urban areas, populations of native plants remain on undeveloped or abandoned land, in parks or reserves, or simply as part of the developed landscape. Urban areas may also share borders with natural areas, the edges of which are particularly prone to invasions by non-native plants. Due to human activity and habitat fragmentation, many native plant populations are now threatened. Urban areas are home to the last remaining populations of some of these plants.

Concern for native plant populations in and around urban areas prompted researchers at University of Pittsburgh to review some of the impacts that urban pollinator gardens may have and to develop a “roadmap for research” going forward. Their report was published earlier this year in New Phytologist.

Planting a wildflower seed mix is a simple way to establish a pollinator garden, and such mixes are sold commercially for this purpose. Governmental and non-governmental organizations also issue recommendations for wildflower, pollinator, or meadow seed mixes. With this in mind, the researchers selected 30 seed mixes “targeted for urban settings in the northeastern or mid-Atlantic USA” to determine what species are being recommended for or commonly planted in pollinator gardens in this region. They also developed a “species impact index” to assess “the likelihood a species would impact remnant wild urban plant populations.”

A total of 230 species were represented in the 30 seed mixes. The researchers selected the 45 most common species for evaluation. Most of these species (75%) have generalized pollination systems, suggesting that there is potential for sharing pollinators with remnant native plants. Two-thirds of the species had native ranges that overlapped with the targeted region; however, the remaining one-third originated from Europe or western North America. The native species all had “generalized pollination systems, strong dispersal and colonization ability, and broad environmental tolerances,” all traits that could have “high impacts” either directly or indirectly on remnant native plants. Other species were found to have either high dispersal ability but low chance of survival or low dispersal ability but high chance of survival.

This led the researchers to conclude that “the majority of planted wildflower species have a high potential to interact with native species via pollinators but also have the ability to disperse and survive outside of the garden.” Sharing pollinators is especially likely due to super-generalists like the honeybee, which “utilizes flowers from many habitat types.” Considering this, the researchers outlined “four pollinator-mediated interactions that can affect remnant native plants and their communities,” including how these interactions can be exacerbated when wildflower species escape gardens and invade remnant plant communities.

photo credit: wikimedia commons

The first interaction involves the quantity of pollinator visits. The concern is that native plants may be “outcompeted for pollinators” due to the “dense, high-resource displays” of pollinator gardens. Whether pollinator visits will increase or decrease depends on many things, including the location of the gardens and their proximity to native plant communities. Pollinator sharing between the two has been observed; however, “the consequences of this for effective pollination of natives are not yet understood.”

The second interaction involves the quality of pollinator visits. Because pollinators are shared between native plant communities and pollinator gardens, there is a risk that the pollen from one species will be transferred to another species. High quantities of this “heterospecific pollen” can result in reduced seed production. “Low-quality pollination in terms of heterospecific pollen from wildflower plantings may be especially detrimental for wild remnant species.”

The third interaction involves gene flow between pollinator gardens and native plant communities. Pollen that is transferred from closely related species (or even individuals of the same species but from a different location) can have undesired consequences. In some cases, it can increase genetic variation and help address problems associated with inbreeding depression. In other cases, it can introduce traits that are detrimental to native plant populations, particularly traits that disrupt adaptations that are beneficial to surviving in urban environments, like seed dispersal and flowering time. Whether gene flow between the two groups will be positive or negative is difficult to predict, and “the likelihood of genetic extinction versus genetic rescue will depend on remnant population size, genetic diversity, and degree of urban adaptation relative to the planted wildflowers.”

The fourth interaction involves pathogen transmission via shared pollinators. “Both bacterial and viral pathogens can be transmitted via pollen, and bacterial pathogens can be passed from one pollinator to another.” In this way, pollinators can act as “hubs for pathogen exchange,” which is especially concerning when the diseases being transmitted are ones for which the native plants have not adapted defenses.

photo credit: wikimedia commons

All of these interactions become more direct once wildflowers escape gardens and establish themselves among the native plants. And because the species in wildflower seed mixes are selected for their tolerance of urban conditions, “they may be particularly strong competitors with wild remnant populations,” outcompeting them for space and resources. On the other hand, the authors note that, depending on the species, they may also “provide biotic resistance to more noxious invaders.”

All of these interactions require further investigation. In their conclusion, the authors affirm, “While there is a clear potential for positive effects of urban wildflower plantings on remnant plant biodiversity, there is also a strong likelihood for unintended consequences.” They then suggest future research topics that will help us answer many of these questions. In the meantime, pollinator gardens should not be discouraged, but the plants (and their origins) should be carefully considered. One place to start is with wildflower seed mixes, which can be ‘fine-tuned’ so that they benefit our urban pollinators as well as our remnant native plants. Read more about plant selection for pollinators here.

The Agents That Shape the Floral Traits of Sunflowers

Flowers come in a wide array of shapes, sizes, colors, and scents. Their diversity is downright astounding. Each individual species of flowering plant has its own lengthy story to tell detailing how it came to look and act the way it does. This is its evolutionary history. Unraveling this history is a nearly insurmountable task, but one that scientists continue to chip away at piece by piece.

In the case of floral traits – particularly for flowers that rely on pollinators to produce seeds – it is safe to say that millennia of interactions with floral visitors have helped shape not only the way the flower looks, but also the nature of its nectar and pollen. However, flowers are “expensive” to make and maintain, so even though they are necessary for reproduction, plants must find a balance between that and allocating resources for defense – against both herbivory and disease – and growth. This balance can differ depending on a plant’s life history – whether it is annual or perennial. An annual plant has one shot at reproduction, so it can afford to funnel much of its energy there. If a perennial is unsuccessful at reproduction one year, there is always next year, as long as it has allocated sufficient resources towards staying alive.

Where a plant exists in the world also influences how it looks. Abiotic factors like temperature, soil type, nutrient availability, sun exposure, and precipitation patterns help shape, through natural selection, many aspects of a plant’s anatomy and physiology, including the structure and composition of its flowers. Additional biotic agents like nectar robbersflorivores, and pathogens can also influence certain floral traits.

This is the background that researchers from the University of Central Florida and University of Georgia drew from when they set out to investigate the reasons for the diverse floral morphologies in the genus Helianthus. Commonly known as sunflowers, Helianthus is a familiar genus consisting of more than 50 species, most of which are found across North America. The genus includes both annuals and perennials, and all but one species rely on cross-pollination to produce viable seeds. Pollination is mainly carried out by generalist bees.

Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani)

Helianthus species are found in diverse habitats, including deserts, wetlands, prairies, rock outcrops, and sand dunes. Their inflorescences – characteristic of plants in the family Asteraceae – consist of a collection of small disc florets surrounded by a series of ray florets, which as a unit are casually referred to as a single flower. In Helianthus, ray florets are completely sterile and serve only to attract pollinators. Producing large and numerous ray florets takes resources away from the production of fertile disc florets, and sunflower species vary in the amount of resources they allocate for each floret form.

In a paper published in the July 2017 issue of Plant Ecology and Evolution, researchers selected 27 Helianthus species and one Phoebanthus species (a closely related genus) to investigate “the evolution of floral trait variation” by examining “the role of environmental variation, plant life history, and flowering phenology.” Seeds from multiple populations of each species were obtained, with populations being carefully selected so that there would be representations of each species from across their geographic ranges. The seeds were then grown out in a controlled environment, and a series of morphological and physiological data were recorded for the flowers of each plant. Climate data and soil characteristics were obtained for each of the population sites, and flowering period for each species was collected from various sources.

The researchers found “all floral traits” of the sunflower species to be “highly evolutionarily labile.” Flower size was found to be larger in regions with greater soil fertility, consistent with the resource-cost hypothesis which “predicts that larger and more conspicuous flowers should be selected against in resource-poor environments.” However, larger flower size had also repeatedly evolved in drier environments, which goes against this prediction. Apart from producing smaller flowers in dry habitats, flowering plants have other strategies to conserve water such as opening their flowers at night or flowering for a short period of time. Sunflowers do neither of these things. As the researchers state, “this inconsistency warrants consideration.”

The researchers speculate that “the evolution of larger flowers in drier environments” may be a result of fewer pollinators in these habitats “strongly favoring larger display sizes in self-incompatible species.” The flowers are big because they have to attract a limited number of pollinating insects. Conversely, flowers may be smaller in wetter environments because there is greater risk of pests and diseases. This is supported by the enemy-escape hypothesis – smaller flowers are predicted in places where there is increased potential for florivory and pathogens. Researchers found that lower disc water content had also evolved in wetter environments, which supports the idea that the plants may be defending themselves against flower-eating pests.

Seed heads of Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani)

Another interesting finding is that, unlike other genera, annual and perennial sunflower species allocate a similar amount of resources towards reproduction. On average, flower size was not found to be different between annual and perennial species. Perhaps annuals instead produce more flowers compared to perennials, or maybe they flower for longer periods. This is something the researchers did not investigate.

Finally, abiotic factors were not found to have any influence on the relative investment of ray to disc florets or the color of disc florets. Variations in these traits may be influenced instead by pollinators, the “biotic factor” that is considered “the classic driver of floral evolution.” This is something that will require further investigation. As the researchers conclude, “determining the exact drivers of floral trait evolution is a complex endeavor;” however, their study found “reasonable support for the role of aridity and soil fertility in the evolution of floral size and water content.” Yet another important piece to the puzzle as we learn to tell the evolutionary history of sunflowers.

Highlights from the Alaska Invasive Species Workshop

This October 24-26th I was in Anchorage, Alaska for the 18th annual Alaska Invasive Species Workshop. The workshop is organized by the Committee for Noxious and Invasive Pests Management and University of Alaska Fairbanks Cooperative Extension. It is a chance for people involved in invasive species management in Alaska – or just interested in the topic – to learn about the latest science, policies, and management efforts within the state and beyond. I am not an Alaska resident – nor had I ever been there until this trip – but my sister lives there, and I was planning a trip to visit her and her family, so why not stop in to see what’s happening with invasive species while I’m at it?

What follows are a few highlights from each of the three days.

Day One

The theme of the workshop was “The Legacy of Biological Invasions.” Ecosystems are shaped by biotic and abiotic events that occurred in the past, both recent and distant. This is their legacy. Events that take place in the present can alter ecosystem legacies. Invasive species, as one speaker said in the introduction, can “break the legacy locks of an ecosystem,” changing population dynamics of native species and altering ecosystem functions for the foreseeable future. Alaska is one of the few places on earth that is relatively pristine, with comparably little human disturbance and few introduced species. Since they are at an early stage in the invasion curve for most things, Alaska is in a unique position to eradicate or contain many invasive species and prevent future introductions. Coming together to address invasive species issues and protect ecosystem legacies will be part of the human legacy in Alaska.

The keynote address was delivered by Jamie Reaser, Executive Director of the National Invasive Species Council and author of several books. She spoke about the Arctic and its vulnerability to invasive species due to increased human activity, climate change, and scant research. To address this and other issues in the Arctic, the Arctic Council put together the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment, and out of that came the Arctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan. Reaser shared some thoughts about how government agencies and conservation groups can come together to share information and how they can work with commercial industries to address the threat of invasive species. She stressed that Alaska can and should play a leadership role in these efforts.

Later, Reaser gave a presentation about the National Invasive Species Council, including its formation and some of the work that it is currently doing. She emphasized that invasive species are a “people issue” – in that the actions and decisions we make both create the problem and address the problem – and by working together “we can do this.”

Day Two

Most of the morning was spent discussing Elodea, Alaska’s first invasive, submerged, freshwater, aquatic plant. While it has likely been in the state for a while, it was only recognized as a problem within the last decade. It is a popular aquarium plant that has been carelessly dumped into lakes and streams. It grows quickly and tolerates very cold temperatures, photosynthesizing under ice and snow. It propagates vegetatively and is spread to new sites by attaching itself to boats and float planes. Its dense growth can crowd out native vegetation and threaten fish habitat, as well as make navigating by boat difficult and landing float planes dangerous. Detailed reports were given about how organizations across the state have been monitoring and managing Elodea populations, including updates on how treatments have worked so far and what is being planned for the future. A bioeconomic risk analysis conducted by Tobias Schwörer was a featured topic of discussion.

After lunch I took a short break from the conference to walk around downtown Anchorage, so I missed a series of talks about environmental DNA. I returned in time to hear an interesting talk about bird vetch (Vicia cracca). Introduced to Alaska as a forage crop, bird vetch has become a problematic weed on farms, orchards, and gardens as well as in natural areas. It is a perennial vine that grows quickly, produces copious seeds, and spreads rhizomatously. Researchers at University of Alaska Fairbanks found that compared to five native legume species, bird vetch produced twice the amount of biomass in the presence of both native and non-native soil microbes, suggesting that bird vetch is superior when it comes to nitrogen fixation. Further investigation found that, using only native nitrogen-fixing bacteria, bird vetch produced significantly more root nodules than a native legume species, indicating that it is highly effective at forming relationships with native soil microbes. Additional studies found that the ability of bird vetch to climb up other plants, thereby gaining access to more sunlight and smothering host plants, contributed to its success as an invasive plant.

 Seed pods of bird vetch (Vicia cracca) in Fairbanks, Alaska

Day Three

The final day of the workshop was a veritable cornucopia of topics, including risk assessments for invasive species, profiles of new invasive species, updates on invasive species control projects, discussions about early detection and rapid response (EDRR), and talks about citizen science and community involvement. My head was swimming with impressions and questions. Clearly there are no easy answers when it comes to invasive species, and like other complex, global issues (made more challenging as more players are involved), the increasingly deep well of issues and concerns to resolve is not likely to ever run dry.

Future posts will dig further into some of the discussions that were had on day three. For now, here are a few resources that I gathered throughout the workshop:

Interpretive sign at Alaska Botanical Garden in Anchorage, Alaska

Concluding the Summer of Weeds

“Most weeds suffer from a bad rap. Quite a few of the weeds in your garden are probably edible or even medicinal. Some invasive plants, including horsetail and nettle, are rich in minerals and can be harvested and used as fertilizer teas. Weeds with deep taproots, such as dandelions, cultivate the soil and pull minerals up to the surface. … Weeds are nature’s way to cover bare soil. After all, weeds prevent erosion by holding soil and minerals in place. Get to know the weeds in your area so you can put them to use for rather than against you.” — Gayla Trail, You Grow Girl

Great Piece of Turf by Albrecht Dürer (photo credit: wikimedia commons)

With summer drawing to a close, it is time to conclude the Summer of Weeds. That does not mean that my interest in weeds has waned, or that posts about weeds will cease. Quite the opposite, actually. I am just as fascinated, if not more so, with the topic of weeds as I was when this whole thing started. So, for better or worse, I will much have more to say on the subject.

In fact, I am writing a book. It is something I have been considering doing for a long time now. With so many of my thoughts focused on weeds lately, it is becoming easier to envision just what a book about weeds might look like. I want to tell the story of weeds from many different angles, highlighting both their positive and negative aspects. There is much we can learn from weeds, and not just how best to eliminate them. Regardless of how you feel about weeds, I hope that by learning their story we can all become better connected with the natural world, and perhaps more appreciative of things we casually dismiss as useless, less quick to jump to conclusions or render harsh judgments about things we don’t fully understand, and more inclined to investigate more deeply the stories about nature near and far.

Of course, I can’t do this all by myself. I will need your help. If you or someone you know works for or against weeds in any capacity, please put us in touch. I am interested in talking to weed scientists, invasive species biologists, agriculturists and horticulturists, edible weed enthusiasts, plant taxonomists, natural historians, urban ecologists, gardeners of all skill levels, and anyone else who has a strong opinion about or history of working with weeds. Please get in touch with me in one of several ways: contact page, Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, or by commenting below.

Another way you can help is by answering the following poll. If there is more than one topic you feel particularly passionate about, feel free to answer the poll as many times as you would like; just wait 24 hours between each response. Thank you for your help! And I hope you have enjoyed the Summer of Weeds.

Quick Guide to the Summer of Weeds:

Summer of Weeds: Willowherbs and Fireweed

Last week we discussed a plant that was introduced as an ornamental and has become a widespread weed. This week we discuss some native plants that have become weedy in places dominated by humans. Similar to pineapple weed, species in the genus Epilobium have moved from natural areas into agricultural fields, garden beds, and other sites that experience regular human disturbance. Some species in this genus have been deliberately introduced for their ornamental value, but others have come in on their own. In all cases the story is similar, humans make room and opportunistic plants take advantage of the space.

Epilobium species number in the dozens and are distributed across the globe. North America is rich with them. They are commonly known as willowherbs and are members of the evening primrose family (Onagraceae). They are herbaceous flowering plants with either annual or perennial life cycles and are commonly found in recently disturbed sites, making them early successional or pioneer species. Many are adapted to wet soils and are common in wetlands and along streambanks; others are adapted to dry, open sites. Hybridization occurs frequently among species in the Epilobium genus, and individual species can be highly variable, which may make identifying them difficult.

northern willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum)

At least two North American species are commonly weedy: E. ciliatum (northern willowherb) and E. brachycarpum (panicled willowherb). Regarding these two species, the IPM website of University of California states: “Willowherbs are native broadleaf plants but usually require a disturbance to establish. Although considered desirable members of natural habitats, they can be weedy in managed urban and agricultural sites.” The field guide, Weeds of the West, refers to E. brachycarpum as a “highly variable species found mostly on non-cultivated sites, and especially on dry soils and open areas.” E. ciliatum is notorious for being a troublesome weed in greenhouses and nurseries, as discussed on this Oregon State University page.

E. ciliatum is a perennial that reproduces via both rhizomes and seeds. It reaches up to five feet tall and has oppositely arranged, lance-shaped leaves with toothed margins that are often directly attached to the stems. Its flowers are tiny – around a quarter of an inch wide – and white, pink, or purple with four petals that are notched at the tip. They sit atop a skinny stalk that is a few centimeters long, which later becomes the fruit. When dry, the fruit (or capsule) splits open at the top to reveal several tiny seeds with tufts of fine hairs.

northern willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum)

E. brachycarpum is an annual that reaches up to three feet tall and is highly branched. Its leaves are short and narrow and mostly alternately arranged. Its flowers and seed pods are similar to E. ciliatum. At first glance it can appear as one of many weeds in the mustard family; however, the tuft of hairs on its seeds distinguishes it as a willowherb.

Seeds and seed pods of panicled willowherb (Epilobium brachycarpum)

Weeds of North America by Richard Dickinson and France Royer describes one weedy species of willowherb that was introduced to North America from Europe – E. hirsutum. It is commonly referred to as great hairy willowherb, but some of its colloquial names are worth mentioning: fiddle grass, codlins and cream, apple-pie, cherry-pie, blood vine, and purple rocket. Introduced as an ornamental in the mid 1800’s, it is a semiaquatic perennial that can reach as tall as eight feet. It has small, rose-purple flowers and is frequently found growing in wetlands along with purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria).

Chamerion angustifolium – which is synonymously known as Epilobium angustifolium and commonly called fireweed – is distributed throughout temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. It is a rhizomatously spreading perennial that grows to nine feet tall; has lance-shaped, stalkless leaves; and spikes of eye-catching, rose to purple flowers. It is a true pioneer species, found in disturbed sites like clear-cuts, abandoned agricultural fields, avalanche scars, and along roadsides. It gets its common name for its reputation of being one of the first plants to appear after a fire, as John Eastman describes in The Book of Field and Roadside: “A spring fire may result in a profusion of growth as soon as 3 months afterward, testifying to fireweed’s ample seed bank in many wilderness areas.” Eastman goes on to write, “fireweed’s flush of abundance following fire may rapidly diminish after only a year or two of postburn plant growth.” This “flush of abundance” is what gives it its weedy reputation in gardens. With that in mind, it is otherwise a welcome guest thanks to its beauty and its benefit to pollinators.

fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium)

Additional Resources:

Quote of the Week:

From the book Food Not Lawns by H.C Flores

Sometimes [weeding] feels like playing God – deciding who lives and who dies is no small matter – and sometimes it feels like war. … Take a moment to ponder the relationship of these plants to other living things around, now and in the future. Your weeds provide forage and habitat for insects, birds, and animals, as well as shelter for the seedlings of other plants. They cover the bare soil and bring moisture and soil life closer to the surface, where they can do their good work. Weeds should be respected for their tenacity, persistence, and versatility and looked upon more as volunteers than as invaders.