Hibiscus trionum is a great example of an ornamental plant becoming a widespread weed. Its common name, flower of an hour, refers to its short-lived blooms. Other common names include Venice mallow, bladder hibiscus, bladderweed, modesty, and shoofly. Native to southern Europe and tropical to subtropical parts of Asia and Africa, it was introduced to America as an attractive addition to annual flower beds. It is now naturalized in many states across the country.
Hibiscus is a huge genus in the family Malvaceae, consisting of species found throughout warmer parts of the world. H. trionum is a warm season annual that grows to around two feet tall and has the habit of a sprawling, decumbent vine; an upright, many-branched mound; or something in-between. Its leaves are alternately arranged and three-lobed with coarsely toothed margins. The flowers are solitary and borne in the axils of leaves. They are creamy white to pale yellow with a purple-brown center, and are both cross- and self-pollinated.
Flowering occurs on sunny days throughout the summer. The ephemeral flowers promptly produce a balloon-shaped seed capsule that is hairy and papery with prominent purple veins. Once mature, the capsules split open at the top to reveal five compartments lined with brown to black, kidney- or heart-shaped seeds. Every part of this plant is attractive and interesting to look at, which is why it is no surprise that it is welcome in many flower beds.
Sites that are in full sun with fertile soil and regular moisture are sought after by flower of an hour. Less fertile soils are still prone to invasion. As with many weeds, disturbance is key, so it is often found in agricultural fields, rangelands, along roadsides, and in vacant lots and construction sites. Its presence in natural areas is a result of escaping from garden beds, agricultural fields, etc.
When we choose to grow plants that have a history of escaping into natural areas, we should be aware of both our proximity to natural areas and the dispersal mechanisms of the plants. Exotic plants that reproduce reliably and prolifically by seed, such as flower of an hour, should be considered unsuitable for gardens that are adjacent to natural areas.
This is because many popular ornamental plants have become invasive in the wild. Plants that are perfectly welcome in our gardens manage to find suitable habitat in natural areas, potentially threatening the livelihood of native plants and/or altering ecological processes such as fire regimes. An example of this where I live is bachelor’s buttons (Centaurea cyanus), which has escaped from gardens and invaded the Boise Foothills. While the impact of this invasion is not well-studied, the speed at which this plant has spread is disconcerting. Even more disconcerting is the fact that seeds of this and other European and Asian species are commonly found in “wildflower” seed mixes distributed throughout North America.
While I am sympathetic towards weeds, I also see them as one of the best reminders of the impacts that humans can have on the planet. They are clear indicators that every step we take has consequences. We should be mindful of this, and we should continue to have the tough conversations that issues like weeds and their impacts encourage us to have. There are no easy answers, but the dialogue must go on. Because all of us – gardeners and non-gardeners/ecologists and non-ecologists alike – generally have an opinion about weeds, they seem like a pretty good place to start.
- Illinois Wildflowers
- Minnesota Wildflowers
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- Royal Horticultural Society
- University of Michigan Herbarium
Quote of the Week:
From the book Invasive Plant Medicine by Timothy Lee Scott
The nature of a weed is opportunistic, and we, as humans, have created enormous holes of opportunity for these plants to fill. They have adapted to be at our side, waiting for those favorable times to cover the exposed soils that we continually create. With ever-changing genetics of form, function, and transmutation, weeds have evolved to withstand the punishments that humans unleash upon them.