This is a guest post by Jeremiah Sandler.
I was doing some sunday reading in a plant biology textbook, a section about leaves. It was highlighting leaf-specific adaptations and other cool leaf specializations. I came across a paragraph about a “flower-pot” leaf, and my mind was so blown after reading it I had to literally stand up.
Some leaves of the Dischidia [genus], an epiphyte from Australasia, develop into urnlike pouches that become the home of ant colonies. The ants carry in soil and add nitrogeneous wastes, while moisture collects in the leaves through condensation of the water vapor coming from the mesophyll through stomata. This creates a good growing medium for roots, which develop adventitiously from the same node as the leaf and grow down into the soil contained in the urnlike pouch. In other words, this extraordinary plant not only reproduces itself by conventional means but also, with the aid of ants, provides its own fertilized growing medium and flower pots and then produces special roots, which “exploit” the situation.
Naturally I had to look up images of this plant because that’s amazing.
In shorter words, the plant grows modified leaves that form a little cavity, within which ants live. The ants incidentally carry soil into the cavity, while fertilizing that soil with their waste. The stomata are located on the insides of these cavities, which expel water from the leaves, where it then waters the soil that is located inside the leaves. Not to mention, the outside of those cavities are photosynthesizing all the while.
So, with the help of ants, an epiphytic Dischidia has evolved leaves to bring the soil to itself up in the trees, where it fertilizes and waters itself? SAY WHAT?! That is so damn cool.
- Bidlack, James E., et al. “Chapter 7.” Stern’s Introductory Plant Biology, McGraw-Hill, 2014, pp. 114–115.
- North Queensland Plants: Dischidia
- World of Succulents: Dischidia
- Singapore National Parks: Dischidia – Ephiphytic Houseplants for Everyone
- Peeters, Christian & Wiwatwitaya, Decha. (2014). Philidris ants living in Dischidia epiphytes from Thailand. Asian Myrmecology. 6. 49-61.