Field Trip: Hoyt Arboretum and Leach Botanical Garden

Thanks to Sierra having a work-related conference to attend, I got the chance to tag along on a mid-July trip to Oregon. My mission while she was busy with her conference was to visit some gardens in Portland. What follows is a mini photo diary of my visits to Hoyt Arboretum and Leach Botanical Garden. Both are places I had never been to before. My visits may have been brief, but they were long enough to earn big thumbs up and a strong recommendation to pay them a visit.

Much of the Hoyt Arboretum is like walking through a dense forest. Here a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) marks a fork in the road. To the right is the White Pine Trail, and to the left is the Bristlecone Pine Trail.

Some of the trees are enormous. This western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is getting up there.

Looking up to admire the canopy was one of my favorite parts. Here I am below the canopy of a vine maple (Acer circinatum).

And now I am below the canopy of a tricolor beech (Fagus sylvatica ‘Tricolor’).

Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus) was abundant, and the fruits were at various stages of maturity.

There were a few flowers to look at as well. Bumblebees were all over this Douglas spirea (Spiraea douglasii). 

Ocean spray (Holodiscus discolor) was in its prime.

Leach Botanical Garden is considerably smaller than Hoyt Arboretum but is similarly wooded. There is a creek that runs through a small ravine with pathways winding up both sides and gardens to explore throughout.

In wooded areas like this, there are guaranteed to be ferns (and, of course, moss growing over the fern sign).

There were several fruiting shrubs, like this Japanese skimmia (Skimmia japonica).

And this Alaskan blueberry (Vaccininium ovalifolium, syn. V. alaskaense).

Wood sorrel (Oxalis spp.) was abundant and often attractively displayed.

I found this insect hotel in the upper section of the garden. Apparently some major developments are planned for this area. Learn more here.

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Have you visited any public gardens this summer? Leave your story and/or recommendation in the comment section below.

Screening for Invasive Plants at Botanical Gardens and Arboreta

As discussed in last week’s post, many of the invasive species that we find in our natural areas were first introduced to North America via the horticulture trade. As awareness of this phenomenon grows, steps are being taken by the horticulture industry to address this issue. The concluding remarks by Sarah Reichard and Peter White in their 2001 article in BioScience describe some recommended actions. One of them involves the leadership role that botanical gardens can play by both stopping the introduction and spread of invasive species and by presenting or promoting public education programs.

Reichard and White offer North Carolina Botanical Garden as an example, citing their “Chapel Hill Challenge,” which urges botanical gardens to “do no harm to plant diversity and natural areas.” Reichard and White also encourage botanical gardens and nurseries to adopt a code of conservation ethics addressing invasive species and other conservation issues. Codes of conduct for invasive species have since been developed for the botanical garden community and are endorsed by the American Public Gardens Association.

 

Botanical gardens that adopt this code have a number of responsibilities, one of which is to “establish an invasive plant assessment procedure,” preferably one that predicts the risks of plant species that are new to the gardens. In other words, botanical gardens are encouraged to screen the plants that are currently in their collections, as well as plants that are being added, to determine whether these plants currently exhibit invasive behavior or have the potential to become invasive. Many botanical gardens now have such programs in place, and while they may not be able to predict all invasions, they are a step in the right direction.

In an article published in Weed Technology (2004), staff members at Chicago Botanic Garden (CBG) describe the process they went through to determine a screening process that would work for them. CBG has an active plant exploration program, collecting plants in Asia, Europe, and other parts of North America. Apart from adding plants to their collection, one of the goals of this program is to find plants with horticulture potential and, through their Ornamental Plant Development department, prepare these plants to be introduced to the nursery industry in the Chicago region. As their concern about invasive species has grown, CBG (guided by a robust Invasive Plant Policy) has expanded and strengthened its screening process.

In order to do this, CBG first evaluated three common weed risk assessment models. The models were modified slightly in order to adapt them to the Chicago region. Forty exotic species (20 known invasives and 20 known non-invasives) were selected for testing. Each invasive was matched with a noninvasive from the same genus, family, or growth form in order to “minimize ‘noise’ associated with phylogenetic differences.” The selected species also included an even distribution of forbs, vines, shrubs, and trees.

Weed risk assessment models are used to quickly determine the potential of a plant species to become invasive by asking a series of questions about the plant’s attributes and life history traits, as well as its native climate and geography. A plant species can be accepted, rejected, or require further evaluation depending on how the questions are answered. For example, if a plant is known to be invasive elsewhere and/or if it displays traits commonly found in other invasive species, it receives a high score and is either rejected or evaluated further. Such models offer a quick and affordable way to weed out incoming invasives; however, they are not likely to spot every potential invasive species, and they may also lead to the rejection of species that ultimately would not have become invasive.

After testing the three models, CBG settled on the IOWA-modified Reichard and Hamilton model “because it was extensively tested in a climatic zone reasonably analogous to … Illinois,” and because it is easy to use and limits the possibility of a plant being falsely accepted or rejected. The selected model was then tested on 208 plants that were collected in the Republic of Georgia. Because few details were known about some of the plants, many of the questions posed by the model could not be answered. This lead CBG to modify their model to allow for such plants to be grown out in quarantined garden plots. This way pertinent information can be gathered, such as “duration to maturity; self-compatibility; fruit type and potential methods of seed or fruit dispersal; seed production, viability, and longevity in the field; and vegetative spread.” CBG believes that evaluations such as this will help them modify their model over time and give them more confidence in their screening efforts.

More about botanical gardens and invasive species: Botanic Gardens Conservation International – Invasive Alien Species

More about weed risk assessment models: Weed Risk Assessment – A way forward or a waste of time? by Philip E. Hulme

Drought Tolerant Plants: Water Efficient Garden at Idaho State Capitol Building

water efficient garden sign

As drought and threats of drought continue in the western half of the United States, as well as in many other parts of the world, people are increasingly looking for ways to use less water in their landscapes. For many it is a change they are reluctant to make, worried that they will have to sacrifice lush and colorful yards and gardens for drab, dry, gray, and seemingly lifeless ones. Not so, though. The palette of plants that can survive in low water environments is actually quite diverse and contains numerous plants that are just as lush and colorful as some water hogging ones. If planned, planted, and maintained well, a water efficient garden can be incredibly attractive and can even consist of some plants that are comparatively more heavy water users. So, for those who are apprehensive about getting down with brown, don’t fret – there is a better way.

How does one go about creating such a garden? The answer to that is a book on its own – much too long for a single blog post. It also depends who is asking the question, or more specifically, where they are asking it from. Luckily, demonstrations of water-wise gardens are becoming more common. These gardens, planted with regionally appropriate plants and showcasing various water-saving techniques, are great places to start when looking for ideas and motivation. Such gardens can be found at public parks, city and state government buildings, botanical gardens, nurseries and nursery centers, and water company offices. If you are looking to transform your landscape into a more water efficient one, seek out a demonstration garden in your area. It’s a great place to start.

There are several such gardens where I live, one of which is the Water Efficient Garden at the Idaho State Capitol Building in Boise, Idaho. This garden began in 2010 as a partnership between United Water Idaho and the Idaho Capitol Commission. Its mission is to introduce visitors to “low-water native and adaptive plants that thrive in Idaho’s climate.” The plants that were selected for the garden are commonly found at local garden centers and nurseries – an important objective when introducing people to water-wise gardening. The ultimate goal of this garden is to “show homeowners that they can maintain attractive landscaping while conserving water.”

I have my criticisms of this garden regarding plant selection, design, etc., but I’ll spare you those details. I also don’t know the specifics about how this garden is maintained or how often it is watered. All that aside, I am just happy that it exists, and I encourage you to seek out similar gardens in your area. There are numerous approaches to designing and constructing water efficient gardens – again, a book on its own – but demonstration gardens like this are an excellent place to get ideas and learn what other people in your area are doing to conserve water and create landscapes that better reflect the ecology of your region.

United Water Idaho offers a brief introduction to low water gardening here, as well as a list of plants that are in the capitol building garden here.

Blanket Flower (Gaillardia x grandiflora 'Goblin') Plants in the garden are accompanied by a sign with a number on it. The sign corresponds to the plant list that is provided at the entrances to the garden.

Blanket flower (Gaillardia x grandiflora ‘Goblin’). Plants in the garden are accompanied by a sign with a number on it. The sign corresponds to a plant list that is provided at the entrances to the garden.

Dianthus sp.

Dianthus sp.

Coreopsis sp.

Coreopsis sp.

Geranium sp.

Geranium sp.

Liatris sp.

Liatris sp.

A drift of pearly everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea)

A drift of pearly everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea)

Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

Yellow ice plant (Delosperma nubiginum)

Yellow ice plant (Delosperma nubiginum)

Other “Drought Tolerant Plants” Posts on Awkward Botany:

Fernbush

Blue Sage

Prickly Pears