Poisonous Plants: Buttercups

Hold a buttercup flower under your chin. If your chin glows yellow, you love butter. That is according to a classic childhood game anyway. Recent research explored the cellular structure of buttercup petals and revealed the anatomical reason behind their yellow glow. Apart from helping to warm the flower’s sex organs, this glow is thought to draw in pollinating insects to ensure proper pollination.

Now take the fresh green leaves of buttercups, crush them up, and rub them against your skin. On second thought, DON’T DO THAT! This is not a childhood game and should absolutely be avoided…unless, of course, you derive some sort of pleasure from painful blisters.

Buttercups, also commonly known as crowfoots, are in the genus Ranunculus and the family Ranunculaceae. Ranunculus consists of a few hundred species and is a common group of annual and perennial herbaceous plants with alternately arranged, palmately veined leaves that are either entire, lobed, or finely divided. Buttercup flowers are usually yellow (sometimes white) with 5 petals (sometimes 3 or 7) that are either borne singly or in loose clusters. The flowers are complete, having both male and female reproductive structures that are easily identifiable. Flowering usually occurs in the spring.

bulbous buttercup (Ranunculus bulbosus) – photo credit: wikimedia commons

Ranunculus species are found throughout the world. Common habitats include moist woods, meadows, open fields, wetlands and other riparian areas, as well as drier sites like roadsides and neglected, urban lots. Several species are commonly grown as ornamentals, and others are common weeds in natural areas, urban landscapes, and agricultural fields.

All buttercups contain a compound called ranunculin. When the leaves are crushed or bruised, ranunculin breaks down to form an acrid, toxic oil called protoanemonin. Contact with this oil causes dermatitis. Symptoms occur within an hour of contact and include burning and itching along with rashes and blisters. When the leaves are chewed, blisters can form on the lips and face. If swallowed, severe gastrointestinal irritation can follow, accompanied by dizziness, spasms, and paralysis. The toxic oil is also irritating to the eyes.

Ranunculus species vary in their levels of this toxic compound, and individual plants are said to be more toxic in the spring when they are actively growing and flowering. Protoanemonin breaks down further into an innocuous compound called anemonin, so dead and dried out plants are generally safe. Commonly encountered (and particularly toxic) species in North America include tall buttercup (R. acris), cursed buttercup (R. sceleratus), creeping buttercup (R. repens), littleleaf buttercup (R. arbortivus), and sagebrush buttercup (R. glaberrimus). Bulbous buttercup (R. bulbosus) has bulbous roots that are toxic when fresh but are said to be edible after they are well boiled or completely dried.

cursed buttercup (Ranunculus sceleratus)

The toxicity of Ranunculus species seems to be more of an issue for livestock than for humans. Grazing animals tend to avoid it since it tastes so bad. Those that do eat it exhibit responses similar to humans – blistering around the mouth, gastrointestinal issues, etc. In The Book of Field and Roadside, John Eastman writes about Ranunculus acris: “Cattle usually avoid the plant – its acrid juices can blister their mouths – though they can also develop something like an addiction to it, consuming it until it kills them.” Buttercups becoming dominant in pastures and rangelands is often a sign of overgrazing.

Despite – and likely due to – their toxicity, buttercups have a long history of medicinal uses. Civilizations in many parts of the world have used the leaves and roots of the plant to treat numerous ailments including rheumatism, arthritis, cuts, bruises, and even hemorrhoids. A report published in 2011 describes three patients in Turkey that had applied poultices of corn buttercup (R. arvensis) to parts of their body to treat rheumatism. The patients were treated for chemical burns caused by the applications. The report concludes by advising against treatments “whose therapeutic effects have not been proven yet by scientific studies.”

In The North American Guide to Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms, buttercups are listed among plant species that are skin and eye irritants, honey poisons, and milk poisons (see Appendices 3, 4, and 5). Other genera in the buttercup family may also contain high levels of protoanemonin, including popular ornamentals like Clematis, Helleborus, Anemone, and Pulsatilla. Thus, the moral of this story: handle these plants with care.

sagebrush buttercup (Ranunculus glaberrimus)

More Poisonous Plant Posts on Awkward Botany:

Poisonous Plants: Yews

Wildfires last summer followed by a particularly harsh winter has driven herds of elk, deer, antelope, and other ungulates closer to urban and suburban areas in southern Idaho. This has resulted in several of the animals making a meal out of a particularly poisonous plant and then promptly dying. The plant is a yew, an ornamental shrub or tree that is commonly used in residential and commercial landscapes. Seven elk died after eating Japanese yew in the Boise Foothills. Fifty pronghorn antelope died after eating the same plant species in the small city of Payette. Eight more elk were found dead in North Fork and Challis, poisoned by yew; eight others were found dead outside of Idaho Falls having suffered a similar fate. And this is just a sampling. Needless to say, such tragedies have spawned a greater awareness of this and other deadly poisonous plants – plants that were purposely planted in our yards, thought benign, but lying in wait to kill.

Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) - photo credit: wikimedia commons

Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) – photo credit: wikimedia commons

Yews, plants in the genus Taxus, are in the family Taxaceae, a coniferous family that consists of around 5-7 genera and up to 30 species (sources vary). Taxus is one of the largest genera in the family with between 9 and 11 species. The genus occurs across three continents, with at least four species naturally occurring in North America (T. canadensis, T. brevifolia, T. globosa, and T. floridana). The species most commonly grown as ornamentals include Japanese yew (T. cuspidata), English yew (T. baccata), and a hybrid of the two (T. x media).

Generally speaking, yews are evergreen shrubs or trees with inch long, dark green needles that come to a sharp point. Branches are alternately arranged and the bark is scaly and reddish-brown. As trees they can reach heights of more than 60 feet, but in a garden setting the plants are usually hedged into more managable-sized shrubs. Taxus species are dioecious, which means that individuals are either male or female. The females produce fleshy, round, cup-shaped fruits that are pink, red, or green. This structure is called an aril and is produced by the swelling of the stem around a single seed. All parts of the plant are poisonous, with only one exception – the aril. This is problematic because the bright-colored aril can appear quite appetizing. And it is edible; however, when the seed is consumed along with it, the plant’s poison makes its way into the body.

The fruits of yew (Taxus sp.)

The fruits of yew (Taxus sp.)

Yew poisoning is unfun. Death can occur in a matter of a few hours, depending on the parts of the plant and amount consumed. The North American Guide to Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms lists these symptoms: “nausea, dry throat, severe vomiting, diarrhea, rash, pallor, drowsiness, abdominal pain, dizziness, trembling, stiffness, fever, and sometimes allergy symptoms.” Symptoms of severe poisoning include, “acute abdominal pain, irregular heartbeat, dilated pupils, collapse, coma, and convulsions, followed by a slow pulse and weak breathing.” The cause of death is respiratory and heart failure.

Yews contain a number of toxic compounds, including volatile oils and a cyanogenic glycoside. The compound responsible for yew’s high toxicity is taxine, a potent cardiotoxin and, as it turns out, an effective drug against certain types of cancer. Very small doses of this poison can be deadly. One or two yew seeds can kill a small child, and a handful or two of the needles can kill an animal, depending on its size. Even dried branches and leaves remain toxic, so wreaths made with yew should be disposed of in a landfill rather than tossed into a yard or field where domestic animals and livestock can find them. Yew consumption should be promptly addressed by visiting an emergency room or calling the Poison Control Center.

Yew’s deadly reputation is not something to take lightly. They are a popular ornamental because of their attractive fruits and evergreen foliage, their tolerance of shade, and their low maintenance requirements, but homeowners with children, pets, or proximity to horses, cows, or wild animals should consider removing them. If a decision is made to keep them, the shrubs can be wrapped in burlap during the winter to prevent hungry animals from coming in for a bite, particularly on properties that are adjacent to natural areas.

For more information about yew identification and removal, check out this article in the Idaho Statesman. Also, consider this wise counsel by Amy Stewart from her book, Wicked Plants:

Do not experiment with unfamiliar plants or take a plant’s power lightly. Wear gloves in the garden; think twice before swallowing a berry on a trail or throwing a root into the stew pot. If you have small children, teach them not to put plants in their mouths. If you have pets, remove the temptation of poisonous plants from their environment. The nursery industry is woefully lax about identifying poisonous plants; let your garden center know that you’d like to see sensible, accurate labeling of plants that could harm you. Use reliable sources to identify poisonous, medicinal, and edible plants.

More Poisonous Plant Posts on Awkward Botany:

In Praise of Poison Ivy

This is a guest post by Margaret Gargiullo. Visit her website, Plants of Suburbia, and check out her books for sale on Amazon.

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No one seems to like Toxicodendron radicans, but poison ivy is an important plant in our urban and suburban natural areas. Poison ivy (Anacardiaceae, the cashew family) is a common woody vine, native to the United States and Canada from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Michigan and Texas. It is also found in Central America as far south as Guatemala. It is all but ubiquitous in natural areas in the Mid-Atlantic United States. It has been recorded in over 70 wooded parks and other natural areas in New York City.

Leaflets of three? Let if be. Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans). photo credit: wikimedia commons

Leaflets of three? Let if be. Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) – photo credit: wikimedia commons

Poison ivy does have certain drawbacks for many people who are allergic to its oily sap. The toxins in poison ivy sap are called urushiols, chemicals containing a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (catechol) and an alkyl group of various sorts (CnHn+1).

These chemicals can cause itching and blistering of skin but they are made by the plant to protect it from being eaten by insects and vertebrate herbivores such as rabbits and deer.

Poison ivy is recognized in summer by its alternate leaves with three, shiny leaflets and by the hairy-looking aerial roots growing along its stems. In autumn the leaves rival those of sugar maple for red and orange colors. Winter leaf buds are narrow and pointed, without scales (naked). It forms extensive colonies from underground stems and can cover large areas of the forest floor with an understory of vertical stems, especially in disturbed woodlands and edges. However, It generally only blooms and sets fruit when it finds a tree to climb. When a poison ivy stem encounters a tree trunk, or other vertical surface, it clings tightly with its aerial roots and climbs upward, reaching for the light (unlike several notorious exotic vines, it does not twine around or strangle trees). Once it has found enough light, it sends out long, horizontal branches that produce flowers and fruit.

Flowers of poison ivy are small and greenish-white, not often noticed, except by the honeybees and native bees which visit them for nectar and exchange pollen among the flowers. Honey made from poison ivy nectar is not toxic. Fruits of poison ivy are small, gray-white, waxy-coated berries that can remain on the vine well into winter. They are eaten by woodpeckers, yellow-rumped warblers, and other birds. Crows use poison ivy berries as crop grist (instead of, or along with, small stones) and are major dispersers of the seeds.

The fruits of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) - photo credit: Daniel Murphy

The fruits of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) – photo credit: Daniel Murphy

It is as a ground cover that poison ivy performs its most vital functions in urban and suburban woodlands. It can grow in almost any soil from dry, sterile, black dune sand, to swamp forest edges, to concrete rubble in fill soils, and along highways. It enjoys full sun but can grow just fine in closed canopy woodlands. It is an ideal ground cover, holding soil in place on the steepest slopes, while collecting and holding leaf litter and sticks that decay to form rich humus. It captures rain, causing the water to sink into the ground, slowing runoff, renewing groundwater, filtering out pollutants, and helping to prevent flooding.

Poison ivy is usually found with many other plants growing up through it – larger herbs, shrubs, and tree seedlings that also live in the forest understory. It seems to “get along” with other plants, unlike Japanese honeysuckle or Asian bittersweet, which crowd out or smother other plants. Poison ivy is also important as shelter for birds and many invertebrates.

While those who are severely allergic to poison ivy have reason to dislike and avoid it, Toxicodendron radicans has an important place in our natural areas. No one would advocate letting it grow in playgrounds, picnic areas, or along heavily used trail margins, but it belongs in our woods and fields and should be treated with respect, not hatred. Recognize it but don’t root it out.

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Further Reading: Uva, R. H., J.C. Neal and J. M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Comstock Publishing. Ithaca, NY.

This piece was originally published in the New York City Dept. of Parks & Recreation, Daily Plant.

How a Plant Could Just Kill a Man, part two

Plants falling on people was a major theme in the Caustic Soda podcast Killer Plants episode, which is why part one of this two part series was devoted entirely to the subject. Yet, in the process of discussing death by falling branches and fruits, the hosts also mentioned at least three other highly dangerous and potentially deadly plants: ongaonga, gympie gympie, and the little apple of death. Those plants are featured here.

The nettle family, Urticaceae, includes a number of species that are best admired from a distance. Several genera (out of around 53 total) in this family are equipped with stinging hairs – sharp protrusions on leaves and stems that contain a variety of toxic compounds. Contact with these plants is ill-advised. Reactions vary from mild to extreme depending on the extent of the contact and the species in question. Two of the plant species mentioned by the hosts of Caustic Soda are members of this family – ongaonga (Urtica ferox) and gympie gympie (Dendrocnide moroides) – both of which are on the extreme side of the scale.

Urtica ferox is a New Zealand endemic that is commonly found in coastal and lowland areas as well as forest edges and shrublands. It is a shrub that reaches up to three meters tall and often occurs in dense thickets. The margins and midribs of its leaves are adorned with stiff hairs that are just a few millimeters long and poised to inject toxic compounds including histamine and acetylcholine upon contact. The “sting” is painful and can cause a variety of reactions including itching, inflammation, difficulty breathing, paralysis, blurred vision, and convulsions. Symptoms can last for several days, and neurological disorders occur in extreme cases.

Ongaonga has been blamed for killing several animals, including dogs and horses, but is charged with only one human death. In 1961, two hikers ventured into a patch of the stinging nettles. Shortly after contact they had trouble walking, breathing, and seeing. One of the men died a few hours later; the other recovered.

Ongaonga (Urtica ferox) - photo credit: www.eol.org

Ongaonga (Urtica ferox) – photo credit: www.eol.org

Several species in the nettle family can be found in Australia, one of which is particularly dangerous. Dendrocnide moroides, commonly known as stinging tree or suicide plant, is an early successional species, colonizing disturbed sites and sunlit gaps in the rainforest canopy. It grows to about three meters tall and has large heart-shaped leaves with sawtooth margins. All aboveground parts of the plant are covered in silicon hairs that are packed with a highly potent neurotoxin. The hairs detach easily from the plant and embed themselves in the skin of its victims. The “sting” is extremely painful and can last anywhere from days to months, possibly even returning from time to time years after contact. A rash, swelling, and itching sensation accompany the intense pain.

Following an encounter with the stinging tree, the “stingers” should be removed from the skin with a hair removal strip or some other sticky material, taking care not to break off the embedded tips. The affected area can be treated with diluted hydrochloric acid (1:10 by volume) to reduce the pain. Live plants are not the only ones to be wary of, as even old herbarium specimens have been said to sting those that handle them. Touching the plant isn’t even necessary, as the hairs easily dislodge from the plant in the wind and can be breathed in. One researcher reports developing a severe allergic reaction to the plant after working around it for several years and was advised by a doctor to abandon her research.

The spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, has many toxic plants among its ranks, including a species that Guiness World Records has awarded the world’s most dangerous tree. Commonly known as manchineel or beach apple, Hippomane mancinella demands respect, as a highly toxic latex sap is found throughout the entire plant. Just standing near it can result in painful blistering of the skin. Manchineel occurs along shorelines and in coastal woodlands and swamps in Central America and the West Indies, including southern Florida and the Florida Keys. It is a deciduous tree that grows to about fifteen meters tall, has thick grey bark, and glossy, elliptical leaves. Its fruits look like yellow-green crabapples and are sweet smelling and initially sweet tasting, that is until the burning and swelling starts followed by severe gastroenteritis.

Manchineel tree a.k.a. little apple of death (Hippomane mancinella) - photo credit: www.eol.org

Manchineel tree a.k.a. little apple of death (Hippomane mancinella) – photo credit: www.eol.org

Interaction with manchineel is inadvisable. The thick, milky sap seeps out of leaves, branches, bark, and fruits and causes intense blistering of the skin and temporary blindness if it gets near the eyes. During rainstorms, the sap becomes incorporated in raindrops and can drip or splash onto unwitting bystanders. Smoke from burning trees can also irritate the skin and eyes, and inhalation of the sawdust can result in bronchitis, laryngitis, and other respiratory issues. Modern history does not include reports of human fatalities resulting from eating the little apples of death, but descriptions offered by those who have consumed it confirm that it is an incredibly unpleasant experience.

Related Posts:

Poisonous Plants: Heartbreak Grass

An Asian vine known to be deadly poisonous has been in the news lately. Alexander Perepilichny, a Russian banker turned whistleblower who provided information on tax fraud committed by the Russian state and the Russian Mafia, mysteriously died while jogging back in November 2012. Last year, a botanist at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew was called in to help with the ongoing investigation. Analyses revealed traces of a compound found in Gelsemium elegans, suggesting that Perepilichny had been poisoned and calling into question the orignal claim that there was no foul play in his death.

Gelsemium is a genus in the family Gelsemiaceae. It is composed of three species, two of which are native to North America (G. rankinii and G. sempervirens). Gelsemium elegans is native to China and Southeast Asia. All species are poisonous due to a number of alkaloids found in virtually all parts of the plant and particularly concentrated in the roots and leaves. The most toxic and abundant compound is gelsemine, an alkaloid related to strychnine.

Gelsemium elegans, commonly known as heartbreak grass, is a twining vine with oppositely arranged, narrowly ovate leaves and yellow to orange flowers with five petals that are fused near the base. It occurs in thickets and scrubby forests. According to news reports (NPR and ABC News), it has a history of being used in assassinations by Chinese and Russian contract killers. Finding traces of it in Perepilichny’s body understandably raises questions about his death. The investigation continues, and the Kew botanist is now a “star witness.” 

Gelsemium elegans (image credit: Flora of China)

Gelsemium elegans (image credit: Flora of China)

Poisoning by heartbreak grass is not a pleasant experience. Its affects can be felt soon after ingestion and, depending on the amount ingested and the time that lapses between ingestion and treatment, death – usually by asphyxiation – can be imminent. The Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine reported on two cases of Gelsemium elegans poisoning, in which a husband and wife consumed the plant after mistaking it for the medicinal herb, Mussaenda pubescens. The 65 year old woman became dizzy, weak, and nauseous thirty minutes after consuming the plant. Then she went unconscious. Quick medical attention saved her life. She was released from the hospital eight days later, after spending time in intensive care and undergoing various treatments. Her 69 year old husband experienced similar dizziness and weakness, but promptly vomited and called for an ambulance.

The report states that “ingestion of G. elegans is highly poisonous regarding its neurological and respiratory depressive effects,” and that “early and active respiratory support is the key to successful resuscitation.” The report also wisely warns: “People should best avoid eating any wild plants because of the similar external appearance of certain poisonous and non-poisonous species.” Proper and skilled identification is paramount, especially where plants are growing so closely together that they intertwine, “leading to inadvertent ingestion.”

All Gelsemium species have been used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments. If used properly, they may provide effective treatments; however, in their book, The North American Guide to Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms, Nancy Turner and Patrick von Aderkas state – regarding the medicinal use of G. sempervirens – that the “plant [is] considered very dangerous for herbal use.” They also list the plant as a skin and eye irritant and claim that the flower’s nectar produces poisonous honey.

gelsemium sempervirens 1

Gelsemium sempervirens

Commonly known as Carolina jasmine and yellow jessamine, G. sempervirens is a woodland plant found in west Texas and throughout the southeastern United States. It is an attractive, evergreen, perennial vine with yellow, fragrant, funnel-shaped flowers and is grown as an ornamental in its native region and beyond. Most poisonings occur when the stems and leaves are consumed, usually as some kind of “herbal preparation;” however, the Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants claims that “there are cases of children who were poisoned after sucking on the flowers.” Headaches, dizziness, blurred visions, dry mouth, and difficulty speaking and talking are a few of the initial symptoms experienced after ingesting this plant. When cases are severe, muscles in the body experience weakness, spasms, and contractions. Symptoms, in other words, are akin to strychnine poisoning, and barring prompt and proper medical care, results can be similarly deadly.

More Poisonous Plants Posts:

Poisonous Plants: Lima Beans

I don’t recall being a picky eater as a child, but one food I could barely stomach was lima beans. The smell, the texture, the taste, even the look of them, really didn’t sit well with me. I know I’m not alone in this sentiment. Lima beans are a popular thing to hate, and I have avoided them ever since I was old enough to decide what was allowed on my plate. To be fair, the only lima beans I remember trying were the ones included in the familiar bag of frozen mixed vegetables, which might explain why I didn’t like them. But little did I know there is another reason to avoid them – lima beans are poisonous.

That’s a strong statement. In case you’ve eaten lima beans recently or are about to, I should ease your concerns by telling you that you have little to worry about. Commonly cultivated lima beans are perfectly safe to eat as long as they are cooked properly, and even if they are eaten raw in small doses, they are not likely to hurt you. But again, why are you eating lima beans? They’re gross.

lima beans in cans

Phaseolus lunatus – commonly known as lima bean as well as a number of other common names – is in the legume family (Fabaceae) and is native to tropical America. It is a perennial, twining vine that reaches up to 5 meters. It has trifoliate leaves that are alternately arranged, and its flowers are typically white, pink, or purple and similar in appearance to pea flowers and other flowers in the legume family. The fruits are hairy, flat, 5 – 10 cm long, and often in the shape of a half moon. The seeds are usually smooth and flat, but are highly variable in color, appearing in white, off-white, olive, brown, red, black, and mottled.

P. lunatus experienced at least two major domestication events – one in the Andes around 4ooo years ago and the other in Central America more than 1000 years ago. Studies have found that the first event yielded large seeded varieties, and the second event produced medium to small seeded varieties. Wild types of P. lunatus have been given the variety name sylvester, and cultivated types are known as variety lunatus; however, these don’t appear to be accepted names by plant taxonomists and perhaps are just a way of distinguishing cultivated plants from plants growing in the wild, especially in places where P. lunatus has become naturalized such as Madagascar.

Distinguishing wild types from cultivated types is important though, because wild types are potentially more poisonous. Lima bean, like several other plants we eat, contains compounds in its tissues that produce cyanide. These cyanide producing compounds are called cyanogenic glucosides and are present in many species of plants as a form of defense against herbivores. The predominant cyanogenic glucoside in lima beans is called linamarin, which is also present in cassava and flax.

Fruits of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) - photo credit: wikimedia commons

Fruits of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) – photo credit: wikimedia commons

In order for lima beans to poison you, they must be chewed. Chewing brings linamarin and the enzymes that react with it together. Both compounds are present in the cells of lima beans, but they reside in different areas. Once they are brought together, a reaction ensues and hydrogen cyanide is produced. Because cyanide isn’t produced until after the plant is consumed, the symptoms of cyanide poisoning can take a little while to occur – often several hours.

Cyanide poisoning is not a pretty thing. First comes sweating, abdominal pain, vomiting, and lethargy. If the poisoning is severe, coma, convulsions, and cardiovascular collapse can occur. There are treatments for cyanide poisoning, but if treatment comes too late or if the dose is large enough, death results.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is particularly well known for its history of cyanide poisonings. It is a staple crop of people living in tropical areas of Africa and South America. Humans can readily metabolize small amounts of cyanide, and processes like crushing and rinsing, cooking, boiling, blanching, and fermenting render cassava safe to eat. However, consuming cassava that isn’t prepared properly on a consistent basis can result in chronic illnesses, such as konzo, which is a major concern among cultures in which cassava is an important food source.

I guess I should reiterate at this point that most cultivated lima beans contain low (read “safe”) levels of cyanogenic glucosides and, particularly when cooked, are perfectly safe to eat. I’m still not totally convinced that I should eat them though. While researching this article I came across numerous sites claiming that lima beans are delicious while offering various recipes to prove it. I even came across this story in which a self-proclaimed “lima bean loather” was converted to the side of the lima bean lovers. I don’t fancy myself much of a cook, so I’m hesitant to attempt a lima bean laden recipe for fear that it will only make me hate them more. If anyone out there thinks they can convince me otherwise with their tasty creation, be my guest.

And now a haiku:

You are lima beans
I despised you as a child
Perhaps unfairly?

Follow these links to learn more about cyanide producing crops and lima beans:

2015: Year in Review

Raise your glass. 2015 has come to a close, and Awkward Botany is turning three. Two great reasons to celebrate.

I started the year with the goal of posting at least once per week. Consider that goal accomplished, with a couple of bonus posts thrown in for good measure. I had also deemed 2015 the “Year of Pollination.” The underlying purpose was to teach myself more about pollinators and pollination while also sharing my interest in pollination biology with the wider world. That endeavor yielded 17 posts. There is still so much to learn, but we are making some headway. I started two new series of posts (Poisonous Plants and Botany in Popular Culture) and I continued with two others (Ethnobotany and Drought Tolerant Plants). I also went on a couple of field trips and wrote a few book reviews. All of that is reflected below in “Table of Contents” fashion.

Year of Pollination:

Botany in Popular Culture

Poisonous Plants

Ethnobotany

Drought Tolerant Plants

Book Reviews

Field Trips

Three posts that perhaps didn’t get the attention they deserve:

juniper in the snow

Going forward, I will continue to post regularly – as there is no shortage of plant-related things to write about – but I will likely take a week off here and there. I have other projects in mind – some related to Awkward Botany, some not – that will certainly demand much of my attention and time. I have some big ideas for Awkward Botany and beyond, and I will share those with the wide world in due time. For now, I would just like to say thanks all for reading, for commenting, and for sharing Awkward Botany with your friends. Overall, it has been a great year here at Awkward Botany headquarters, and I have you to thank for that. I feel privileged to be part of a community that is infatuated with plants and is fascinated by the natural world.

Good riddance to 2015. It was good, but it gets better. Now we look ahead to 2016. May it be filled with peace, love, and botany.